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Your Position: > Your Reagent Warehouse for COVID-19 Vaccine Development

Your Reagent Warehouse for COVID-19 Vaccine Development

Solutions for COVID-19 vaccine safety and immunogenicity evaluation
Background

Since December 2019, the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated disease, COVID-19, has caused a devastating pandemic worldwide. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic presents an extraordinary challenge to the lives and health of the global population, resulting in a total of over 200 million diagnosed cases and 4.9 million death (as of October 2021). It also significantly affected society, economics and the environment around the world and changed everyone's life.

As the virus spreads globally, the continuous emergence of new mutant strains escalated the challenge on humans. To better track and inform the viral variants, the World Health Organization (WHO) characterized several variants as "Variants of Concern (VOCs) " and "Variants of Interest (VOIs) " based on the risk posed to global public health. Today, of hundreds of variants that evolved from the original wild-type virus, Delta (PANGO lineage B.1.617.2/AY) are dominantly circulating and shaping the trend, reported to be responsible for most of the cases worldwide.

Vaccination is the cornerstone to prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases. Despite the importance of mask-wearing and social distancing, immunization by vaccines remains the most cost-effective way to protect our health. For this reason, vaccine development and production are at the center of each nation's public health policy.

ACROBiosystems is a life science company that provides reagents for the global vaccine industry. Having mobilized forces to develop SARS-CoV-2 recombinant antigens since the pandemic and accumulated mature technology and experiences with the virus and vaccines, we supply 200+ products and customized services that cover all the dominant strains of SARS-CoV-2 and support vaccine development of all technological platforms.

>>> Download the poster about core research tools for COVID-19 vaccine R&D

During the special time of need, we will continue to track the epidemic and are determined to facilitate the trial and application of the vaccines.

An Overview of Different COVID-19 Vaccines

In more than a year after the virus outbreak, various scientific research units and vaccine companies have worked to successfully develop a variety of COVID-19 vaccines. The vaccines can be classified by different technological platforms into whole virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, viral vector vaccines and gene vaccines (Fig. 1). Currently, 7 vaccines have obtained the WHO's emergency use authorization to be used in massivevaccination on a global scale, and over 300 vaccines are under development in pre-clinical or clinical trial stage.

Platforms of COVID-19 Vaccines
Regulation of COVID-19 Vaccines Development and Licensure
Workflow for Vaccine R&D
1 Production and QC

(1)Antigen Detection:

Whole virus/Protein based:SDS-PAGE, MS, ELISA;

Virus vectored/ Nucleic acid:Western Blot, ELISA, FACS;

(2)Affinity Detection:

Protein based:ELISA, SPR, BLI;

(3)Efficacy evaluation:

IgG titer detection:ELISA Neutralizing Ab titer detection cVNT, pVNT, sVNT.

2 Preclinical Study

(1)Efficacy evaluation

①In vivo efficacy evaluation:

★Humoral immunity:

ⅠMouse/Monkey IgG titer detection

ⅡNeutralizing Ab titer detection

★Cellular immunity:Elispot

(2)In vitro efficacy evaluation:

①Antigen Detection

3 Clinical Trial Phase I&II
4 Clinical Trial Phase III

(1)Efficacy evaluation

①In vivo efficacy evaluation:

★Humoral immunity:

ⅠHuman IgG titer detection

ⅡNeutralizing Ab titer detection

★Cellular immunity:Elispot

②In vitro efficacy evaluation:Antigen Detection

(2)Toxicity evaluation

①ADE/VED detection:IgG isotype titer mesurement

>>> Development and Licensure of Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19

ACROBiosystems Products & Services for COVID-19 Vaccine R&D
Antigen Detection
  • Super stable SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer

  • RBD/S trimer antigen quantitative detection kit

  • Variants specific antibodies

The ideal control for antigen detection:Super stable SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer

Closely resemble the natural conformation: Introduction of 6P mutations on S2 stabilizes spike protein in the pre-fusion state.
High trimer purity (>90%) verified by SDS-PAGE, SEC-MALS and Negative Stain Electron Microscopy (NS-EM).
Provide trimer mutants of all VOCs, VOIs and other dominant strains.
Suitable as control in antigen detection tests.

Product List

LineageCat. No.MutationTagPreorder/Order

Assay data

The purity of SARS-CoV-2 S protein, His Tag, Super stable trimer (Cat. No. SPN-C52H9) is more than 90% verified by SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) condition. The molecular weight was around 550-660 kDa confirmed by SEC-MALS. The particles are similar in size and appearance to SARS-CoV-2 trimers reported in published literature verified by negative stain electron micrography.

Bioactivity Verification

Immobilized Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody, Human IgG1 (Cat. No. SAD-S35) at 1 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind SARS-CoV-2 S protein, His Tag, Super stable trimer (Cat. No. SPN-C52H9) with a linear range of 0.3-10 ng/mL.

Comparison of Sample Test Data

SARS-CoV-2 S protein, His Tag, Super stable trimer (Cat. No. SPN-C52H9) shows highest signal-to-noise ratio as compared to other spike proteins constructs in antibody tests in convalescent serum

Highly efficient tools for antigen detection:RBD/S trimer antigen quantitative detection kit (sandwich ELISA)

Meet different detection needs at customized sensitivity
Antibody pairs in the kit can recognize mutant antigens from multiple strains at equal sensitivity
High batch-to-batch stability ensured consistency of detection in the mass manufacturing and quality control process

Product List

Cat. No.Product DescriptionPreorder/Order

Assay data

For mutant antigen detection in next-generation Vaccine R&D: Omicron/Delta/Beta & Gamma specific antibodies

Specific binding activity verified by ELISA
High bioactivity verified by BLI/SPR
The purity of antibodies are more than 95% as determined by SDS-PAGE and 90% verified by SEC-MALS
Can be used for mutant antigen quantitative detection requirement during the process of polyvalent and Omicron-based vaccine R&D

Product List

Cat. No.IsotypeProduct DescriptionEpitopePreorder/Order

Assay data

Loaded Monoclonal Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Antibody, Mouse IgG1 (Cat. No. SPD-M305) on AMC Biosensor, can bind SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD, His Tag (B.1.1.529/Omicron) (Cat. No. SPD-C522e) with an affinity constant of 9.07 nM as determined in BLI assay (ForteBio Octet Red96e).

Immobilized  SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (Omicron, Cat. No. SPD-C522e) can bind Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Antibody, Mouse IgG1(Cat. No.SPD-M305) with a linear range of 0.4-12.5 ng/mL. The antibody does not bind  Spike RBD of WT (Cat. No. SPD-C52H1), Alpha (Cat. No. SPD-C52Hn), Beta (Cat. No. SPD-C52Hp), Delta(Cat. No. SPD-C52Hh) and Gamma (Cat. No. SPD-C52Hr).

>>> The activity of antibodies were verified by pseudovirus. Click to learn more.

Antigen Bioactivity Characterization
  • ACE2 and other host receptors

  • Antigen-ACE2 interaction service

High quality dimeric receptor:ACE2 proteins

Available in multiple tags: His, His & Avitag™, Fc, Fc & Avitag™ etc.
Available in multiple species: Human, Mouse, Cynomolgus, Rat, Paguma larvata
Available in biotinylated or unconjugated forms that suits different experimental needs
High purity and binding activity with spike proteins verified with ELISA/SPR/BLI

Product List

MoleculeCat. No.SpeciesTagHostProduct DescriptionPreorder/Order

Assay data

Bioactivity Verification

Immobilized SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein, His Tag (Cat. No. S1N-C52H3) at 2 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind Biotinylated Human ACE2, His,Avitag (Cat. No. AC2-H82E6) with a linear range of 2-20 ng/mL (QC tested).

Human ACE2, Fc Tag (Cat. No. AC2-H5257) captured on CM5 chip via Anti-human IgG Fc antibodies surface can bind recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike vaccine with an affinity constant of 16.9 nM as determined in a SPR assay (Biacore T200).

Aid comprehensive research on antigen-ACE2 interaction:Molecular interaction analytical services

Multi-platform analytical services (SPR, BLI, etc.)
Qualitative/quantitative analysis of the speed, affinity, and mechanism of binding between antigen proteins and host receptors
High-standard QC system with high-quality data output
Customized report generation in 1-2 days

>>> The proteins are with high purity verified by MALS and high bioactivity verified by in vitro assay and cell based assay. Click to learn more.

>>> If you have any customized inquiries or suggestions for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) related product development, please click here.

Immune Persistence Research
  • Total Antibody Titer Determination

  • Neutralizing Antibody Titer Detection

  • Spike protein pseudovirus

  • Broad-spectrum anti-RBD neutralizing antibody

In vivo antibody titer determination in preclinical & clinical trial:S trimer/RBD/S1 IgG Antibody Titer Detection Kit (indirect ELISA)

NAb kits are standardized with WHO International Standard Serum (G, NIBSC code 20/136) to ensure that data is comparable between studies and laboratories
Stable reagents with high batch-to-batch consistency to ensure data reliability for measuring changes in antibody titers at different times after vaccination
Provide different kits suitable for serum antibody detection in different species (rats, monkeys, humans) to meet the needs of preclinical and clinical experiments
Provide VOCs mutant-specific IgG antibody titer kits for antibody titer evaluation of vaccines against multiple viral variants
  • Pre-clinical trial

  • Clinical trial

Cat. No.EpitopeProduct DescriptionPreorder/Order
Cat. No.EpitopeProduct DescriptionPreorder/Order

Assay data

Sample data

Post-vaccination serum samples are tested with Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody IgG Titer Serologic Assay Kit (Spike RBD) (Cat. No.RAS-T024), which accurately and precisely measure antibody titer in serum (Accuracy≤±15%; Intra-assay precision<10%; Inter-assay precision <15%).

WHO International Standard Serum (G, NIBSC code 20/136) Calibration Results

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody IgG Quantitative Detection Kit (Spike Trimer) (Cat. No. RAS-T048) is developed for quantitative detection of IgG antibodies in post-vaccination serum. This kit is an important supplement to the existing vaccine evaluation methods which significantly improve the efficiency and accuracy of vaccine evaluation.

High-throughput alternative for neutralizing antibody detection: Neutralizing Antibody Titer Detection Kit (competitive ELISA)

High correlation with WHO International Standard Serum (G, NIBSC code 20/136): ensures the data is comparable between studies and laboratories
High correlation with pseudovirus tests: can be used as a high-throughput alternative method for pseudovirus neutralization assay
Simple operation: the entire experiment can detect 90 + samples at the same time in 1.5-2.0 h
Mutation-specific (VOCs) neutralizing antibody detection kits: can identify mutant-specific neutralizing antibodies at high sensitivity
LineageCat. No.Product DescriptionPreorder/Order

Assay data

Experimental Principle

Competitive ELISA

Clinical Test Data

Post-vaccination serum NAb test (Cat. No. RAS-N022) demonstrates high sensitivity and accuracy

Pseudovirus Neutralization

16 convalescent serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibody level with pseudovirus and ELISA kit (Cat. No. RAS-N022), respectively. The results are highly correlated (R2 =93.73)。

Clinical Test Data

56 post-vaccination (inactivated vaccines) serum samples are tested for neutralizing capacity against multiple strains (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta) of SARS-CoV-2 with wild type (WT) and mutant-specific kits. Neutralization against all VOCs is lower than the WT, with Delta being the lowest.

WHO International Standard Serum (G, NIBSC code 20/136) Calibration Results

Note:y = (A - D) / [1 + (x/C)^B] + D (A =1.55562 B =1.45522 C=14.42024 D=0.05532 r^2= 1)

Safe and approved neutralizing antibody detection method: Spike protein pseudovirus

Safety: Replication-deficient, no pathogenic
Authority: Authoritative method for neutralization titer evaluation
High luminescence value: luminescence of the cells after infection can reach over 106
Low background: The background value is less than 1%
Convenience: we provide pseudovirus, ACE2 overexpression cells and antibodies for positive control together as a package.
Technical services: neutralization assay service is also provided for antibodies or other samples evaluation.

Product List

Cat. No.Product DescriptionPreorder/Order

Applicability of pseudovirus-antibody/serum neutralization assay

Antibody neutralization assay

SARS-CoV-2 Spike (WT) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSW-HLGB001) and SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Omicron) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSO-HLGB003) can be neutralized by Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Neutralizing Antibody (Cat. No. SPD-M265, S1N-M122) with inhibition rates of more than 99%. The antibody, REGN10987, which has been reported that Omicron mutant strain can escape, can effectively neutralize SARS-CoV-2 Spike (WT) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSW-HLGB001)  but not SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Omicron) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSO-HLGB003).

Serum neutralization assay

SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Omicron) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSO-HLGB003) can be neutralized by serum from immunized mice. The inhibition rates come up to more than 99%.

Limited interference induced by serum component in pseudovirus neutralization assay

SARS-CoV-2 Spike (WT) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSW-HLGB001), SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Delta) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSD-HLGB002) and SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Omicron) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSO-HLGB003) can be neutralized by Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Neutralizing Antibody (Cat. No. S1N-M122) with similar dose-effect relationship in various matrixes (culture medium with 0%, 2.5% or 5% human negative serum).

Firefly  luciferase and GFP dual-reporter system

SARS-CoV-2 Spike (WT) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSW-HLGB001) and SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Omicron) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSO-HLGB003) both hold high titer. The luminescence value after the pseudovirus infect 5×104 human ACE2 overexpression cells (Cat. No. CHEK-ATP042) for 48 h come up to more than 106. The luciferase reporter is suitable for quantitative experiments.  

SARS-CoV-2 Spike (WT) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSW-HLGB001), SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Delta) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSD-HLGB002) and SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Omicron) Fluc-GFP Pseudovirus (Cat. No. PSSO-HLGB003) all contain GFP reporter. The GFP reporter is used for imaging.

Qualified positive control for neutralizing antibody detection:Broad-spectrum anti-RBD neutralizing antibody

High specificity and binding activity verified by ELISA
Pseudovirus-verified broad spectrum neutralization of a variety of mutants, including all the VOCs

Product List

Cat. No.SpeciesProduct DescriptionIsotypePreorder/Order

Assay data

ELISA Verification

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Neutralizing antibody (Cat. No.S1N-M122)neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD by inhibiting RBD: ACE2 interaction. The ACE2-coated plate is incubated with the wild type (WT) RBD or B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.1, B.1.617.2 mutant and treated with the neutralizing antibody at increasing concentration. Percent inhibition is calculated based on the OD value.

Pseudovirus verification data

As verified by SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus neutralization test, the broad-spectrum neutralizing antibody (Cat. No. S1N-M122) can effectively neutralize wild-type and Alpha (B.1.1.7) /Beta (B.1.351) /Gamma (P.1) /Delta (B.1.617.2, data not shown) viral mutants, making it suitable as a quality control antibody in neutralizing antibody screening for mutant strains, neutralizing antibody detection in convalescent or vaccinated serum, etc.

>>> Click to learn more about the kits.

>>> If you have any customized inquiries or suggestions for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) related product development, please click here.

Toxicity Studies (antibody subtype detection)
  • antibody subtype detection

IgG Antibody Subtype Detection Kit (indirect ELISA):support research in ADE and ERD

Designed for serological tests of IgG subtypes: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4
High specificity that ensures antibodies are correctly typed
High stability and batch-to-batch consistency
The complete set of reagents needed for an experiment is provided in one kit to ease operation
Can test 90 + samples at the same time within 2h
LineageCat. No.Product DescriptionPreorder/Order

Assay data

Cross-validation data for antibody subtype detection

ACRO's products have been cited by several COVID-19 related study
ACROBiosystems is a leading manufacturer of recombinant proteins and other critical reagents to support the development of target therapeutics, vaccines and diagnostics. ACRO’s reagents have supported lots of researchers around the globe for their COVID-19 related study and have been cited in publications on Cell, Nature, Science, etc.

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