Lymphocyte antigen 6E (LY6E), also known as RIG-E, SCA2 and TSA1. GPI-anchored cell surface protein that regulates T-lymphocytes proliferation, differentiation, and activation. Regulates the T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling by interacting with component CD3Z/CD247 at the plasma membrane, leading to CD3Z/CD247 phosphorylation modulation. Restricts the entry of human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, by interfering with spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. Plays also an essential role in placenta formation by acting as the main receptor for syncytin-A (SynA). Therefore, participates in the normal fusion of syncytiotrophoblast layer I (SynT-I) and in the proper morphogenesis of both fetal and maternal vasculatures within the placenta. May also act as a modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) activity.
Clinical and Translational Updates
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